Forschungsberichte und Studien
Hier erhalten Sie eine Übersicht über relevante Studien in deutscher und englischer Sprache zum Thema "Schreiben mit der Hand" und dessen vielfältige Bedeutung für die persönliche und soziale Entwicklung des Menschen.
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Journal of Educational Psychology
Margaret H. Thomas et.al.
The positive effects of writing practice on integration of foreign words in memory
The effect of copying foreign language vocabulary words and/or pronouncing them aloud while attempting to learn their English counterparts was investigated. In Experiment 1, writing practice enhanced written recall of the foreign words in response to their English equivalents. Recall of the foreign words in the oral modality was not influenced by these variables. In Experiment 2, when recall of English words was measured, neither variable was found to have a significant effect. In Experiment 3, written free recall of foreign language words was found to be enhanced by writing practice, whereas associative recall, as measured by a matching test, was not reliably influenced by this variable. The overall pattern of results is interpreted as supporting the view that copying foreign language words assists in the formation of memory codes for their written forms.
PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Li Hai Tan
Reading depends on writing, in Chinese
Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters.
Junge Chinesen verlernen das Lesen
Studien zeigen, dass bei der Aneignung der Schrift Hand und Hirn eng zusammenarbeiten. Digitale Hilfen können das Lernen behindern, was derzeit etwa in China zu Problemen führt.
Learning Disability Quarterly
Virginia Berninger et.al.
Comparison of Pen and Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with and without Learning Disabilities
Results for that sample, which also included typically developing second and sixth graders, showed that effects of transcription mode vary with level of language and within level of language by grade level for letters and sentences. However, consistently from second to fourth to sixth grade, children wrote longer essays with faster word production rate by pen than by keyboard. In addition, fourth and sixth graders wrote more complete sentences when writing by pen than by keyboard, and this relative advantage for sentence composing in text was not affected by spelling ability.
Mit der Hand schreiben - ein wichtiger kreativer Prozess
Das Schreiben mit der Hand setzt andere Denkprozesse frei als das Schreiben mit einer Tastatur. Man solle das Schreiben mit Computer nicht verteufeln, sagen amerikanische Forscher, aber man dürfe auch das Schreiben mit der Hand in der Schule nicht vernachlässigen.
Advances in Haptics
Anne Mangen et.al.
Digitizing Literacy: Reflections on the Haptics of Writing
Writing is a complex cognitive process relying on intricate perceptual-sensorimotor combinations. The process and skill of writing is studied on several levels and in many disciplines, from neurophysiological research on the shaping of each letter to studies on stylistic and compositional features of authors and poets. In studies of writing and literacy overall, the role of the physically tangible writing device (pen on paper; computer mouse and keyboard; digital stylus pen and writing tablet; etc.) is rarely addressed.
University of Stanvanger
Trond Egil Toft
Better learning through handwriting
Associate professor Anne Mangen at the University of Stavanger’s Reading Centre asks if something is lost in switching from book to computer screen, and from pen to keyboard.
The process of reading and writing involves a number of senses, she explains. When writing by hand, our brain receives feedback from our motor actions, together with the sensation of touching a pencil and paper. These kinds of feedback is significantly different from those we receive when touching and typing on a keyboard.
Journal Of Motor Behavior
Sandra Sülzenbrück et.al.
The Death of Handwriting: Secondary Effects of Frequent Computer Use on Basic Motor Skills
The benefits of modern technologies such as personal computers, in-vehicle navigation systems, and electronic organizers are evident in everyday life. However, only recently has it been proposed that the increasing use of personal computers in producing written texts may significantly contribute to the loss of handwriting skills. Such a fundamental change of human habits is likely to have generalized consequences for other basic fine motor skills as well. In this article, the authors provide evidence that the skill to produce precisely controlled arm–hand movements is related to the usage of computer keyboards in producing written text in everyday life. This result supports the notion that specific cultural skills such as handwriting and typing shape more general perceptual and motor skills. More generally, changing technologies are associated with generalized changes of the profile of basic human skills.
Lernen durch Schreiben? Thesen zur Unterstützung sprachlicher Risikogruppen im Sachfachunterricht
Ausgehend von der Frage, wie sich die Leistungsfähigkeit von sog. Risikoschülern verbessern lässt, wird angesichts der aktuellen curricularen Kompetenzorientierung die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit von sprachlichen und kognitiven Leistungen erörtert. Dabei werden Lernbedarfe von solchen Schülern in Regelklassen thematisiert, die zwar über basale alltagskommunikative Kompetenzen verfügen, die jedoch die für schulisches Lernen spezifischen sprachlichen Fähigkeiten erst noch erwerben müssen. Es werden Hinweise darauf erörtert, wie das leistungsrelevante schulische Register über Scaffolding und reflektierte Schriftlichkeit bzw. den Umgang mit schulrelevanten Textsorten/Genres eher erworben werden kann als durch bisher den Schulalltag dominierende mündliche Unterrichtsformen.
Bundesverband Alphabetisierung und Grundbildung e.V.
Anke Grotelüschen, Wibke Riekmann (Hrsg.)
Funktionaler Analphabetismus in Deutschland
7,5 Millionen Deutsch sprechende Erwachsene können nur so eingeschränkt lesen und schreiben, dass sie von voller selbstständiger gesellschaftlicher Teilhabe ausgeschlossen sind, bzw. häufig auf Unterstützung angewiesen sind.
Death of Handwriting
Research commissioned from print and post specialist Docmail has revealed the average person hasn’t written by hand for 41 days. The full extent to which technology has taken over our lives was shown in a study of 2,000 Brits - one in three hasn’t had cause to hand write anything properly for over six months. Gone are the days of handwritten phone-books, writing reminders or noting something on the calendar – the study revealed all of these are now more likely to be done without using a pen. And two thirds of people say if they do still handwrite something, it’s usually for their eyes only – mostly hastily scribbled reminders or a quick note.
Trends in Neuroscience and Education
Karin H. James et.al.
The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children
In an age of increasing technology, the possibility that typing on a keyboard will replace handwriting raises questions about the future usefulness of handwriting skills. Here we present evidence that brain activation during letter perception is influenced in different, important ways by previous handwriting of letters versus previous typing or tracing of those same letters.
The New York Times
What’s lost as handwriting fades
Does handwriting matter? Not very much, according to many educators. The Common Core standards, which have been adopted in most states, call for teaching legible writing, but only in kindergarten and first grade. After that, the emphasis quickly shifts to proficiency on the keyboard. But psychologists and neuroscientists say it is far too soon to declare handwriting a relic of the past. New evidence suggests that the links between handwriting and broader educational development run deep.
International Journal of Disability, Development and Education
Debra McCarney et.al.
Does Poor Handwriting Conceal Literacy Potential in Primary School Children?
Handwriting is a complex skill that, despite increasing use of computers, still plays a vital role in education. It is assumed that children will master letter formation at a relatively early stage in their school life, with handwriting fluency developing steadily until automaticity is attained. The capacity theory of writing suggests that as automaticity develops, the proportion of working memory dedicated to the mechanics of handwriting is reduced, releasing capacity for the planning, composing and editing of content.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Paul Gimenez et.al.
Neuroimaging correlates of handwriting quality as children learn to read and write
Reading and writing are related but separable processes that are crucial skills to possess in modern society. The neurobiological basis of reading acquisition and development, which critically depends on phonological processing, and to a lesser degree, beginning writing as it relates to letter perception, are increasingly being understood. Yet direct relationships between writing and reading development, in particular, with phonological processing is not well understood. The main goal of the current preliminary study was to examine individual differences in neurofunctional and neuroanatomical patterns associated with handwriting in beginning writers/readers.
Pam A. Mueller et.al.
The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard - Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking
Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students’ capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing.
Association for Psychological Science
Take Notes by Hand for Better Long-Term Comprehension
Dust off those Bic ballpoints and college-ruled notebooks — research shows that taking notes by hand is better than taking notes on a laptop for remembering conceptual information over the long term. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.
Walk into any university lecture hall and you’re likely to see row upon row of students sitting behind glowing laptop screens. Laptops in class have been controversial, due mostly to the many opportunities for distraction that they provide (online shopping, browsing Reddit, or playing solitaire, just to name a few). But few studies have examined how effective laptops are for the students who diligently take notes.
Auswertung einer bundesweiten Befragung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern in Grund- und weiterführenden Schulen in Kooperation mit dem Deutschen Lehrerverband
Probleme bei der Entwicklung von Handschrift
Vier Fünftel (81 Prozent) der an der Erhebung beteiligten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an weiterführenden Schulen sind der Meinung, die Handschrift ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler habe sich im Schnitt verschlechtert. Sogar 87 Prozent der befragten Grundschullehrerinnen und Grundschullehrer gaben an, dass sich die Kompetenzen, die Schüler als Voraussetzung für die Entwicklung der Handschrift mitbringen, in den vergangenen Jahren verschlechtert haben.
Nach Einschätzung der an der Umfrage beteiligten Lehrkräfte haben die Hälfte der Jungen (51 Prozent) und ein Drittel der Mädchen (31 Prozent) Probleme mit der Handschrift. Ein Großteil der Schülerinnen und Schüler leidet darunter: Mehr als die Hälfte der befragten Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an weiterführenden Schulen beobachten gerade mal bei höchstens 30 Prozent ihrer Schülerinnen und Schüler, dass diese 30 Minuten oder länger beschwerdefrei schreiben können.
Advances in Cognitive Psychology
Kiefer, M., Schuler, S., Mayer, C., Trumpp, N. M., Hille, K., and Sachse, S.
Handwriting or Typewriting? The Influence of Pen- or Keyboard-Based Writing Training on Reading and Writing Performance in Preschool Children
Digital writing devices associated with the use of computers, tablet PCs, or mobile phones are increasingly replacing writing by hand. It is, however, controversially discussed how writing modes influence reading and writing performance in children at the start of literacy. On the one hand, the easiness of typing on digital devices may accelerate reading and writing in young children, who have less developed sensory-motor skills. On the other hand, the meaningful coupling between action and perception during handwriting, which establishes sensory-motor memory traces, could facilitate written language acquisition. In order to decide between these theoretical alternatives, for the present study, we developed an intense training program for preschool children attending the German kindergarten with 16 training sessions. Using closely matched letter learning games, eight letters of the German alphabet were trained either by handwriting with a pen on a sheet of paper or by typing on a computer keyboard. Letter recognition, naming, and writing performance as well as word reading and writing performance were assessed. Results did not indicate a superiority of typing training over handwriting training in any of these tasks. In contrast, handwriting training was superior to typing training in word writing, and, as a tendency, in word reading. The results of our study, therefore, support theories of action-perception coupling assuming a facilitatory influence of sensory-motor representations established during handwriting on reading and writing.
Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund
Handwriting as a tool for learning in ELT
This article discusses the role that handwriting can have when writing is used as a tool for learning in English language education. Nineteen Norwegian EFL teacher training students were interviewed in focus groups about their own practices and their thoughts about writing-to-learn activities. All the students said that they prefer to write by hand. They claimed that writing by hand is fundamentally different from writing on a keyboard, and that handwriting has much greater impact as a tool for learning. However, the students had not given much thought to the didactic implications of their own preferences, and issues related to the different technologies of writing are not dealt with in their own studies. The investigation suggests that more attention should be paid to the affordances of different technologies of writing and to handwriting as a tool for learning in ELT.
Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink
Computer Interfaces Can Stimulate or Undermine Students’ Ability to Think
Computer input capabilities, such as a keyboard or pen, substantially influence basic cognitive abilities, including our ability to produce appropriate ideas, solve problems correctly, and make accurate inferences about information. Compared with keyboard interfaces, computer input tools that can be used to express information involving differentrepresentations, modalities, and linguistic codes—or expressively powerful interfaces—can directly stimulate human thought and performance. (...)
Audrey van der Meer & F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel
Only Three Fingers Write, But The Whole Brain Works: A High-Density EEG Study Showing Advantages of Drawing Over Typing for Learning
Electroencephalogram (EEG) was used in young adults to study brain electrical activity as they were writing or describing visually presented PictionaryTM words using a keyboard, or as they were drawing the same words using a stylus. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (TSE, time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. Our results showed that in the drawing condition, brain areas in the parietal and occipital regions showed Event Related Desynchronizing (ERD) activity in the theta/alpha range. These findings are consistent with existing literature and are often reported to provide an optimal background for learning. In the describe condition, beta/gamma range activity in the central and frontal regions could be observed, especially during the early stage of cognitive processing. Such activity is often associated with the involvement of higher cognitive, top-down processes and the creation of ideas. (...)
Current Directions in Psychological Science
Karin H. James
The Importance of Handwriting Experience on the Development of the Literate Brain
Handwriting experience can have significant effects on the ability of young children to recognize letters. Why handwriting has this facilitative effect and how this is accomplished were explored in a series of studies using overt behavioral measures and functional neuroimaging of the brain in 4- to 5-year-old children. My colleagues and I showed that early handwriting practice affects visual symbol recognition because it results in the production of variable visual forms that aid in symbol understanding. Further, the mechanisms that support this understanding lay in the communication between visual and motor systems in the brain: Handwriting serves to link visual processing with motor experience, facilitating subsequent letter recognition skills. These results are interpreted in the larger context of the facilitatory effect that learning through action has on perceptual capabilities.
Frontiers in Psychology
Mayer, C., Wallner, S., Budde-Spengler, N., Braunert, S., Arndt, P. A., & Kiefer, M.
Literacy Training of Kindergarten Children With Pencil, Keyboard or Tablet Stylus: The Influence of the Writing Tool on Reading and Writing Performance at the Letter and Word Level
During the last years, digital writing devices are increasingly replacing handwriting with pencil and paper. As reading and writing skills are central for education, it is important to know, which writing tool is optimal for initial literacy education. The present training study was therefore set up to test the influence of the writing tool on the acquisition of literacy skills at the letter and word level with various tests in a large sample of kindergarten children (n = 147). Using closely matched letter learning games, children were trained with 16 letters by handwriting with a pencil on a sheet of paper, by writing with a stylus on a tablet computer, or by typing letters using a virtual keyboard on a tablet across 7 weeks. Training using a stylus on a touchscreen is an interesting comparison condition for traditional handwriting, because the slippery surface of a touchscreen has lower friction than paper and thus increases difficulty of motor control. Before training, immediately after training and four to five weeks after training, we assessed reading and writing performance using standardized tests. (...)
Frontiers in Psychology
Eva Ose Askvik, F. R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L. H. van der Meer
The Importance of Cursive Handwriting Over Typewriting for Learning in the Classroom: A High-Density EEG Study of 12-Year-Old Children and Young Adults
To write by hand, to type, or to draw – which of these strategies is the most efficient for optimal learning in the classroom? As digital devices are increasingly replacing traditional writing by hand, it is crucial to examine the long-term implications of this practice. High-density electroencephalogram (HD EEG) was used in 12 young adults and 12, 12-year-old children to study brain electrical activity as they were writing in cursive by hand, typewriting, or drawing visually presented words that were varying in difficulty. Analyses of temporal spectral evolution (TSE, i.e., time-dependent amplitude changes) were performed on EEG data recorded with a 256-channel sensor array. For young adults, we found that when writing by hand using a digital pen on a touchscreen, brain areas in the parietal and central regions showed event-related synchronized activity in the theta range. Existing literature suggests that such oscillatory neuronal activity in these particular brain areas is important for memory and for the encoding of new information and, therefore, provides the brain with optimal conditions for learning. When drawing, we found similar activation patterns in the parietal areas, in addition to event-related desynchronization in the alpha/beta range, suggesting both similarities but also slight differences in activation patterns when drawing and writing by hand. When typewriting on a keyboard, we found event-related desynchronized activity in the theta range and, to a lesser extent, in the alpha range in parietal and central brain regions. However, as this activity was desynchronized and differed from when writing by hand and drawing, its relation to learning remains unclear. For 12-year-old children, the same activation patterns were found, but to a lesser extent. We suggest that children, from an early age, must be exposed to handwriting and drawing activities in school to establish the neuronal oscillation patterns that are beneficial for learning. We conclude that because of the benefits of sensory-motor integration due to the larger involvement of the senses as well as fine and precisely controlled hand movements when writing by hand and when drawing, it is vital to maintain both activities in a learning environment to facilitate and optimize learning. (...)